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   2016| July-December  | Volume 11 | Issue 2  
    Online since February 1, 2017

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Risk management approach of needle stick and sharp injuries among nurses, Saudi Arabia: An interventional study
Abdullah M Al Jarallah, Amani S Ahmed
July-December 2016, 11(2):50-55
DOI:10.4103/1687-4293.199300  
Background/aim Nurses are the most frequent health occupational group to suffer from needle stick and sharp injuries (NSI), which puts nurses under the risk to acquire serious blood-borne diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the incidence of NSIs among nurses, and to assess their knowledge and evaluate the effect of intervention on raising knowledge, awareness, and decreasing the incidence of NSIs. Patients and methods An intervention study was carried out among all nurses of both sexes working at a military hospital in Saudi Arabia during the period from February 2015 to May 2016. The study was carried out in three phases, the pre-intervention phase where data collection was carried out using a questionnaire, the second phase where health education and a training program were provided to the nurses, followed by the post-intervention assessment after 1 year of the intervention. Results The incidence of NSIs among nurses decreased after the intervention from 9.42 to 3.93%. Whereas the total knowledge score increased from 54.45 to 91.57%. After intervention, all incidents were reported and had proper management after exposure, whereas before intervention 66.67% reported the incident and 55.56% had proper management after exposure. Conclusion Health education and training program provided to the nurses about NSIs had a great effect on decreasing the incidence and raising the knowledge and awareness of nurses toward reporting and proper management after exposure.
  1,593 228 -
Clinicopathological study of pituitary adenomas in the region of northeast india
Mrinal Bhuyan, Dipti Sarma, Deep Dutta, Yogesh Yadav, Sarat Das
July-December 2016, 11(2):43-49
DOI:10.4103/1687-4293.199299  
Background/aim Pituitary adenomas (PA) are the most common tumours of the pituitary gland. Clinicopathological characteristics of these tumours may vary from population to population. The present study aimed to understand the detailed clinical and pathological characteristics of surgically resected PA in the region of Northeast India. Patients and methods Thirty-two consecutive cases of PA diagnosed and operated at Gauhati Medical College were studied for clinical, pathological, and treatment characteristics in this study between January 2014 and December 2015. The patient group included 20 female and 12 male patients with a median age of 37 years (range: 22–58 years). Results A total of 13/32 (40.63%) cases were nonfunctioning adenomas. Among the hormonally active PA, prolactin-producing adenomas were most common (25%), followed by growth hormone-producing adenomas (18.8%) and adrenocorticotrophic hormone-producing adenomas (15.6%). The most common symptom was headache, followed by visual disturbances, galactorrhoea, acromegaloid and cushingoid features. Menstrual disturbances were present in 50% of the female patients. 23.1% of the cases of nonfunctioning PA were negative for all anterior pituitary hormones on immunohistochemistry. Conclusion PA can have varied presentations. Detailed clinical, hormonal and pathological evaluation is essential for better understanding the nature of the tumour growth and its progression. This study is the first of its kind in the region of Northeast India, showing the relationship of the functioning and nonfunctioning PA with their hormonal profile and immunohistochemical analysis.
  863 100 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
Development of immunoassays of catecholamines and their metabolites
Masanori Yoshioka
July-December 2016, 11(2):37-42
DOI:10.4103/1687-4293.199296  
Catecholamines take the role of neurotransmitters and hormones and are involved in many diseases. Sensitive immunoassays for catecholamines and their metabolites were required to study the diagnoses of diseases. First, we achieved success in producing specific antibodies for catecholamines and basic metabolites using each antigen. We applied a monoclonal antibody to 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol to measure the concentrations to diagnose depression. The acidic homovanillic acid (HVA) and d-3-methoxy-4-hydroxymandelic acid (VMA) were useful in mass screening of neuroblastoma using monoclonal antibodies. The paper reviews these developments for future use. An antigen is important to produce the specific antibody. The amino acid residue of each catecholamine and l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine protected with N-maleyl group as well as basic metabolites was reacted with bovine serum albumin using Mannich reaction in the presence of formaldehyde. The N-maleyl group of the conjugate was moderately liberated to give rise to the antigen. The antigen was injected with Freund’s Complete Adjuvant to the rabbit or mouse. The conventional or monoclonal antibody was used for radioimmunoassay or enzyme immunoassay. Each immunoassay showed high specificity in discriminating not only the fine structure of the hapten but also body ingredients. The kits of HVA and VMA were useful in screening the urine from the infant with neuroblastoma. The secret of specific antibody preparation is dependent on the synthetic method of the conjugation, which is chemically moderate. The preparation of antibody requires long time to increase the affinity. Thus, the methods of antibody preparation are established and repeatable for anyone. The mass screening of neuroblastoma with HVA and VMA was easily applied to infants. Our previous results had established immunoassays for all members of catecholamines and their metabolites for diagnosis and research.
  738 96 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance mutation detection using fluorescent hybridization probes and melting curves
Salah M Bensaber, Ibrahim A Marima, Anton Hermann, Abdul M Gbaj
July-December 2016, 11(2):63-70
DOI:10.4103/1687-4293.199297  
Background/aims Single-point mutations or single-nucleotide polymorphisms, deletions, and insertions in genetic sciences are related to several human diseases, such as cancer, metabolic disorders, some types of mental illness, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, etc. Consequently, precise, fast, and sensitive detection of these mutations in specific genes has substantial value in disease diagnosis, in the forecast of patients’ responses to treatments, threat of deterioration of diseases, and outcomes. However, the existence of minute differences in structural and conformation dynamic stability from single base or multibase mismatches between the wild type (WT) and its mutated targets makes detection convenient. The common cause of cystic fibrosis (CF) is the deletion of three nucleotides (CTT). This deletion happens in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene, which involves the last cytosine (C) of isoleucine 507 (isoleucine 507ATC) and the two thymidine oligonucleotide (T) of phenylalanine 508 (phenylalanine 508TTT) codons. The significances of this important deletion are the deletion of phenylalanine at the 508 position of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein (ΔF508), an identical codon modification for isoleucine 507 (isoleucine 507ATT), and protein dysfunction. Materials and methods Fluorescence and ultraviolet−visible thermal studies were performed for WT and mutant-type target full systems. The target DNAs used were in the form of short oligonucleotides. The tandem probes system was used for detection of WT and single-nucleotide polymorphism alleles of human 3-bp ΔF508 (TTT) homozygous deletion. The pyrene dye attached to a probe oligonucleotide (15 mer) undergoes an excimer fluorescence intensity change on hybridization of the two probes to the WT compared with mutant-type targets. Results Our results indicate that the system consisting of the target sequence and the two probe oligonucleotides bearing the pyrene dye assemble correctly at the specified target. Once the full system (two probes and target) is arranged under suitable conditions, a red-shift emission and change in fluorescence intensity are seen at an excimer wavelength of 480 nm. Thermal studies also showed significant differences in Tm between mutated and unmutated CF genes. The results suggest that the differences in the fluorescence intensity at 480 nm and the spectrophotometric Tm (s) for the mutated and unmutated CF gene can be attributed to the type of binding of the probe to the target. Conclusion On the basis of the data obtained, we have chosen the probes possessing the highest fluorescence intensity along with the best deletion discrimination detection ability. The system was sensitive to deletion nucleotide polymorphisms and this may help in high-throughput applications in genetic testing and molecular diagnostics.
  665 58 -
Immunohistochemical expression of α-methylacyl coenzyme-A racemase in prostatic carcinoma: correlation with image morphometric parameters
Noha N Mahmoud, Dalia M Abuelfadl, Naglaa F Abbas, Wafaa E Abdelaal, Manal A Badawi, Sonia L El-Sharkawy
July-December 2016, 11(2):56-62
DOI:10.4103/1687-4293.199298  
Background/aim Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of death in men. Although prostate-specific antigen is the most commonly used biomarker for monitoring prostate cancer, it has poor specificity. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic utility of α-methylacyl coenzyme-A racemase (AMACR) as a predictive marker for prostate carcinoma. The expression of AMACR will be correlated with nuclear and glandular morphometric parameters with the aim to enhance the possibility of finding a sensitive immune marker for diagnosing prostatic carcinoma. Patients and methods Prostatic lesions including 30 benign prostatic hyperplasia, 25 prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), and 50 prostatic carcinoma cases were included in this study. Immunohistochemical staining for AMACR was done in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections. Nuclear and glandular morphometric parameters for all cases were evaluated using an image analysis system. Results All cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia as well as normal controls were negative for AMACR. In contrast, 28% of PIN cases and 94% of prostatic carcinoma cases were positively stained for AMACR. Its expression was associated with high-grade PIN and carcinoma. Glandular area and glandular area% were significantly different between the studied prostatic lesions, and they were significantly increased with grade in cases of carcinoma. Conclusion Expression of AMACR plays an important role in the diagnosis of prostatic lesions and may be used as a potentially important prostatic tumor marker. A combination of AMACR and morphometry is of great value in increasing the diagnostic accuracy of prostatic carcinoma and may have value for resolving suspicious cases.
  621 61 -
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