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Year : 2014  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 33-39

Risk factors and outcome in ICU patients with end-stage liver disease

Department of Tropical Medicine and Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
Soha S Abdelmoneim
Department of Tropical Medicine and Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1687-4293.137323

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Background/aim Acute or chronic liver failure is associated with numerous complications that may occur in combination, and patients may require ICU treatment. Therefore, it seems necessary to identify prognostic clinical parameters and risk factors at the time of ICU admission. The present study aims to estimate the frequency of mortality and evaluate morbidity from cirrhosis in patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD) admitted to the ICU and evaluate the relationship between the demographic, clinical, and laboratory data (potential risk factors) of those patients and mortality. Patients and methods A total of 120 patients with ESLD were enrolled [102 (85%) male and 18 (15%) female patients]. History taking, clinical examination, and other laboratory investigations were carried out, and patients were classified according to the Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) and the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) scores. Results Regarding the clinical presentation, hepatic encephalopathy (HE) was found in 87.5% of patients, jaundice in 60%, hematemesis in 41.7%, hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) in 35.8%, and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in 20.8% of patients. The mortality rate was 57.5%; the main causes of death were HRS (40.8%), HE (21.7%), aspiration pneumonia (10%), septic shock (2.5%), and irreversible shock (1.7%). There was a significant relationship between mortality and old age, CTP and MELD scores, and a longer stay at the ICU. Increased white blood cell count, increased hemoglobin and decreased prothrombin concentration, and elevated creatinine were independent risk factors of mortality in ESLD patients in the ICU. Mortality rates were higher in patients with 5-6 risk factors (86.2%) than in those with 1-2 risk factors (21.7%). Conclusion Mortality rate in ESLD patients admitted to the ICU was 57.5% and the most common cause of death was HRS. CTP, MELD score, HE, HRS, and jaundice were significant predictors of mortality in ESLD patients. Mortality increased with increased number of risk factors. Creatinine level, white blood cell count, hemoglobin, and prothrombin concentration were independent risk factors of mortality in ESLD patients.

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