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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 14  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 1-6

Electroretinogram as an early detection of chloroquine retinal toxicity in pigmented rabbits

Biophysics and Laser Science Unit, Department of Visual Science, Research Institute of Ophthalmology, Giza, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
Amal Elawady Ibrahim
Research Institute of Ophthalmology, 2 Elahram Street, Giza, 12511
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jasmr.jasmr_38_18

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Objective Chloroquine (CQ) is a useful drug. It has less systemic hazards than many of the other medications used for immune diseases, but may cause retinopathy. The ophthalmologists do not discover the retinopathy till the appearance of bull’s eye. The aim of the work is to try to use electroretinogram (ERG) and its b/a ratio in early detection of CQ retinopathy for pigmented rabbits chronically treated with CQ. Materials and methods Twenty adult pigmented rabbits (1.5–2 kg) were classified into four groups (five each): the first group served as control and the other three groups of rabbits were intramuscularly injected with CQ diphosphate (14 mg/kg body weight) three times/week for 50, 70, and 90 days, respectively. Each group is subjected to ERG recording, and then decapitation of animal and measurement of oxidant, antioxidant parameters, and histopathological examination in the retinal tissue were done. Results All results show no change by the 50th day after CQ administration. All the changes appear by the 70th day. The data indicated there is a deformation in ERG waves and significant decrease (P<0.05) in b/a ratio. Significant increase (P<0.05) in malondialdehyde level, and in the same context, significant decreases (P<0.05) in superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase activity were seen. The histopathological changes are in the form of vacuolation in the pigment epithelium, destruction in the outer segments of the photoreceptor layer, and signs of karyolysis in some nuclei of outer nuclear layer. Conclusion Our data showed the possibility of using b/a ratio as an early indicator to CQ retinal toxicity in pigmented rabbits. It is also suggested that CQ increases the oxidative stress levels, so supplementation by antioxidants should be a part of the treatment regime.

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