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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
July-December 2020
Volume 15 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 25-108

Online since Saturday, February 6, 2021

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ORIGINAL ARTICLE: OPTHALMOLOGY  

Effect of ultrasound on rabbit cornea and the protective role of antioxidant p. 25
Ayman O Ahmed, Mona M Gamal, Mervat A Ali, Abdel Sattar M Sallam, Elsayed M Elsayed
DOI:10.4103/jasmr.jasmr_18_20  
Background/aim Applications of ultrasound in medicine for therapeutic purposes have been an accepted and beneficial use for many years. The present study aimed to investigate the harmful effect of exposure to therapeutic ultrasound on the cornea and the possible protective role of ascorbic acid and β-carotene. Materials and methods A total of 50 healthy mature New Zealand albino rabbits were enrolled in this study and classified into four groups. Group I contained five rabbits and were used as a control group. The remaining rabbits were classified into three groups of fifteen rabbits each. The eyes of group II were insonificated with continuous ultrasound waves (1.5 W/cm2 at 2.8 MHz) for 20, 40, and 60 min. Group III and group IV were topically treated with vitamin C and supplemented with β-carotene, respectively, before insonificated with ultrasound for 20, 40, and 60 min. All the rabbits were decapitated 24 h after ultrasound exposure. Total soluble protein content and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) analyses were carried out on cornea. Results Soluble protein content of cornea recorded highly significant decreased (P<0.001) by increasing exposure time to ultrasound. The most prominent change in FTIR was detected in NH-OH and finger print regions of cornea after insonification with therapeutic ultrasound for 60 min. The uses of antioxidants reduce the adverse effect of ultrasound on FTIR analysis and total protein content of corneal tissue. Conclusion Ultrasound waves have the possibility to cause significant change in the molecular structure of corneal tissue. The use of antioxidants such as vitamin C and β-carotene preserves the corneal tissue, especially at short insonification time.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES: DENTISTRY Top

Assessment of the antimicrobial effect of fluoride varnish containing nanosilver and conventional fluoride varnish on oral streptococci: an in-vitro study p. 36
Nada E Elsayed, Neveen A Helmy, Sara A Mahmoud, Amr E Abdellatif
DOI:10.4103/jasmr.jasmr_21_20  
Background/aim Oral streptococci are commonly found in the human oral cavity and are considered the foremost cariogenic pathogens in tooth decay. The aim of this study was to assess the antimicrobial effect of fluoride varnish containing nanosilver particles with different concentrations and conventional fluoride varnish on oral streptococci. Materials and methods Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175) and Streptococcus salivarius (ATCC 13419) were grown in nutrient agar medium with 5% blood agar in the bacteriological laboratory. Then both strains were further cultured on Mueller–Hinton agar media separately; three different concentrations of nanosilver fluoride (Nsf) varnish (432, 216, and 108 µg/ml) were prepared and applied on the Mueller–Hinton plates. Conventional fluoride varnish was included as the control sample. The plates were further incubated anaerobically for 24 h at 37°C in the incubator. The antimicrobial effect of different varnishes was assessed by measuring the diameter of inhabitation zones in millimeters by a ruler. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance test, followed by Tukey’s post-hoc test. Results The Nsf varnish showed antimicrobial effect against S. mutans, where the mean value of inhibition zone size (mm) was increased by increasing the concentration of Nsf. For S. salivarius, the mean value of inhibition zone (mm) was gradually decreased by increasing concentration of Nsf. Conventional fluoride varnish showed no inhibition zones in both bacterial strains. Conclusion Nsf varnish had better antibacterial effect than conventional fluoride varnish against both S. mutans and S. salivarius.
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Evaluation of changes in brain activity and cognitive function of diabetic patients wearing removable partial dentures p. 42
Amani R Moussa, Eman M Ibraheem, Asmaa N Elboraey
DOI:10.4103/jasmr.jasmr_29_20  
Background/aim Accumulating evidence suggests that tooth loss may be a major risk factor for brain and cognitive impairment. The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of restoring lost posterior occlusal contacts with removable partial denture (RPD) on the brain activity and cognitive function in controlled type 2 diabetic patients. Patients and methods A total of 30 partially edentulous patients with lost posterior occlusal contacts were selected with no previous partial denture experience. RPDs were constructed from thermoplastic acrylic resin. The brain activity and cognitive function were assessed using electroencephalogram (EEG) and Mini-Mental State Examination questionnaire, respectively, before and after 1 month of RPD insertion. Data were statistically analyzed using t test, and significance level was defined at P value less than 0.05. Results EEG assessment demonstrated an increase in the mean value after 1 month of wearing RPDs. Similarly, Mini-Mental State Examination of cognitive scores displayed an increase in the total mean value after 1 month. The outcomes were statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion Restoration of lost posterior occlusal contact in controlled type 2 diabetic patients with RPD improved the brain function and cognitive status.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES: PEDIATRICS AND CHILD HEALTH Top

DNA-based genotyping to assign extended blood group in thalassemic patients p. 48
Nada O Abdelhameed, Maha Atwa, Eman Nasreldin, Khalid l Elsayh, Sahar A Elgammal
DOI:10.4103/jasmr.jasmr_19_20  
Background/aim In multitransfused thalassemic patients, it is mandatory to assign a correct antigen profile for those patients. Unfortunately, hemagglutination fails to phenotype their blood group antigens owing to the presence of donor-derived red blood cells (RBCs). Genotyping can overcome this limitation to determine the correct antigen profile of these patients. The aim of this study is to compare the results of serological phenotyping and DNA-based red cell antigens genotyping in thalassemic patients. Patients and methods This study was conducted on 210 thalassemic patients who were divided into two groups, viz., the newly diagnosed patient group (n=20) and another 190 patients who were previously diagnosed with a history of blood transfusion, where 25 patients of them were selected with a negative screening test for antibodies. Two standard methods, the serological phenotyping and the DNA-based red cell genotyping, of 16 blood group antigens were performed. Results The present study indicated that there were no significant differences between serological phenotyping and DNA-based red cell genotyping results in the newly diagnosed patients with thalassemia (group 1) who had no history of blood transfusion. However, DNA-based genotyping was found to be significantly superior over the serological phenotyping for detection of some significant antigens in previously diagnosed transfused patients. Conclusion Hemagglutination is regarded as the gold standard method in blood group typing, but the results may be inaccurate in certain situations, particularly in the patients with transfused RBCs present in circulation. Hence, genotyping for RBC antigens could be more helpful in determining the blood group antigen profile in multiply transfused patients. Therefore, the integration between the serological phenotyping and DNA-based red cell genotyping will help in the correct interpretation of the results to increase transfusion safety.
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The diagnostic role of soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 and procalcitonin for early detection of neonatal sepsis p. 56
Walaa H Ali, Mohamed Abdel Atti, Esam M Galal, Khaled H El-Wakil, Hanaa H Ahmed, Wafaa O Ahmed
DOI:10.4103/jasmr.jasmr_28_20  
Background/aim Sepsis is a substantial cause of death in neonates less than or equal to 28 days of life. As the bacteriologic method needs much time and it may give false-negative results in septic neonates’ diagnosis, the present study aims to appraise the diagnostic role of both soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1) and procalcitonin (PCT) for early detection of neonatal sepsis. Patients and methods This case–control study included 40 septic neonates and other 40 nonseptic neonates as control. They were subjected to history taking, full clinical examination, and assessment of sTREM-1, PCT by ELISA, C-reactive protein in serum, in addition to CBC and blood culture test. Results sTREM-1 and PCT showed significant increase in septic group when compared with controls. Moreover, their levels were significantly higher in positive blood culture septic neonates than negative blood culture septic neonates. C-reactive protein level was significantly higher in late-onset sepsis group than early-onset sepsis group. Conclusion Serum sTREM-1 and PCT could be used as new biomarkers for rapid and early detection of neonatal septicemia, leading to prompt initiation of antibiotic therapy for achieving better outcomes in those cases.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES: BIOCHEMISTRY AND NATURAL PRODUCTS Top

Galectin-3 and fibrosis levels in experimental liver injury treated with honey alone or mixed with Nigella sativa seed p. 63
Karam A Mahdy, Ahmed M Salem, Gamila S.M. El-Saeed, Abdel-Razik H Farrag, Mahmoud A Abdel-Monem, Nahla S Hassan
DOI:10.4103/jasmr.jasmr_22_20  
Background/aim Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is a multifunctional protein that plays an important role in many biological processes and is linked with fibrogenesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of honey alone or mixed with Nigella sativa seed (black seed), as hepatoprotective natural remedies on galactin-3 and liver fibrogenesis induced by thioacetamide (TA) in rats. Materials and methods This study was performed on 60 male rats divided into six groups (groups I–VI), with 10 rats each. Group I served as a normal control, groups from II–VI were intoxicated by TA, whereas the groups from III to VI were treated by silymarin, honey, black seed, and honey mixtures, respectively. Levels of liver Gal-3, transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), oxidative stress markers, and serum liver function parameters were determined. Computerized image analysis was used to obtain quantitative measurement of liver fibrotic areas. Results Levels of liver Gal-3, TGF-β1, oxidative stress markers, serum liver transaminases, and fibrotic areas showed significant elevations in TA treated as compared with control. Treatment with silymarin and honey alone or mixed with black seed resulted in lowering liver Gal-3, TGF-β1 levels, and fibrotic areas and improved liver functions and antioxidant status. The mixture doses showed greater effect than honey against TA toxic effects on liver. Conclusion Honey either alone or mixed with black seed reduced Gal-3 level, reduced fibrosis propagation, and ameliorated the toxic effect of TA on liver; moreover, the mixture had greater effect than using honey alone and was closer to silymarin effect.
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Neuroprotective effect of Egyptian Hyphaene thebaica fruit extract against Alzheimer’s disease in an animal model p. 74
Ebtehal K Farrag, Ahlam H Mahmoud, Dalia B Fayed, Nevien M Sabry
DOI:10.4103/jasmr.jasmr_23_20  
Background/aim Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease. The AD incidence is rising and is becoming a heavy economic burden on society and patients’ families. The present study was directed to investigate the protective and therapeutic effects of Hyphaene thebaica fruit extract (HTE) on AD in an animal model. Materials and methods A total of 90 adult albino male rats were involved in this study and were classified into six groups (15 each). Two negative control groups were used: one did not take any supplementation (G1) and a second negative control group in which normal rats were supplemented with HTE (G2). AD induction was performed by orally injecting the animals with 50 mg AlCl3/kg body weight for 6 weeks. Four groups took AlCl3. First group served as a positive control (G3). Two groups were used to investigate the effect of the orally injected HTE on AD rats either as a therapeutic (G4) or preventive (G5) agent. The last group was treated with the reference drug donepezil (G6). After treatment with HTE for 4 weeks, biochemical analyses of acetylcholinesterase activity, lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde), and reduced glutathione were done in the brain tissue homogenate. Lipid profile was determined in sera. Expression level assessments of genes encoding microtubule-associated protein tau and amyloid precursor protein were carried out as well as DNA adducts were measured in brain tissues. Histopathological investigations of brain tissues were also performed. Results The results showed that brain samples of AD group exhibited significant changes in biochemical, molecular, and histopathological parameters. The samples of the groups treated with HTE showed improvements in the studied parameters. The treatment of induced AD group with HTE showed better results than supplementing the extract after occurrence of the signs of Alzheimer. Conclusion It was concluded that HTE acts as a promising candidate natural product to ameliorate and protect brain injury in AD-induced rats.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES: BIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY AND PUBLIC HEALTH Top

Dirty renal sinus fat, a new radiological sign predicting simple urinary tract infection: sex prevalence p. 84
Mohamed S El Hussieny, Sahar A. El-Raufe El-Masry, Emad El-Masry
DOI:10.4103/jasmr.jasmr_26_20  
Background Urinary tract infection (UTI) is considered one of the most frequently occurring bacterial infections; however, its diagnosis is not always straightforward. Nowadays, ultrasonography (US) is the modality of choice in assessment of suspected cases of upper UTIs. Dirty renal sinus fat was diagnosed as irregular-shaped linear hypoechoic streaks that are seen arising from the renal sinus and extending laterally with haziness of the outline of the hyperechoic renal sinus fat. The aim of this study is to document a new simple radiological sign (dirty renal sinus fat) that can help in the diagnosis of UTIs. Patients and methods A cross-sectional study was conducted that included 46 patients visiting Hala Eisa Hospital searching for medical advice who were selected randomly during the period January–April 2019. All the patients were selected after the abdominal US that revealed the dirty renal sinus fat sign or the patients had clinical picture suggesting UTI. The sonographic appearances of all cases were analyzed by the same radiologist who was blinded to the urine culture results that were done for all patients. Results Using urine culture examination, 16 patients had positive urinary infection (two males and 14 females). For males, the two cases diagnosed by urinary examination were diagnosed also by US, in addition to another seven cases, with a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 66.7%, and area under the curve of 83.3. However, for women, the US examination missed one case from the 14 cases diagnosed by urinary examination, in addition to misdiagnosis of another three cases as positive urinary infection, with a sensitivity of 92.9%, specificity of 66.7%, and area under the curve of 79.8. Conclusion Dirty renal sinus fat is a new reliable US finding that can help the urologist and internal medicine physicians in suspecting UTI as a hidden or unexpected finding that can explain the patient’s complaint.
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Association of osteoporosis with different risk factors in a sample of Egyptian women p. 90
Nayera E Hassan, Saneya A Wahba, Mones M Abushady, Samia A.W. Boseila, Sahar A. El-Raufe El-Masry, Enas R Abdelhamid, Salwa R El-Batrawy, Manal M Ali, Aya Khalil, Inas R El-Alameey, Tarek S Ibrahim
DOI:10.4103/jasmr.jasmr_27_20  
Background/aim Both obesity and osteoporosis represent global health problems, as they are associated with major morbidity and mortality risks. The present work is aimed at assessing association of osteoporosis with different risk factors in a sample of Egyptian women. Patients and methods The study was a cross-sectional one conducted at National Research Center, Giza. It included 90 healthy women, with age range from 21 to 60 years. Data on sociodemographic characteristics and nutritional habit were collected by a trained physician. BMI was calculated, and bone mineral density was measured by dual-energy radiograph absorptiometry. Results Of all women, 87.8% were overweight/obese and 42.2% were osteoporotic. Women with normal BMI were more at risk of developing osteoporosis compared with obese women [odds ratio (OR)=17.86, confidence interval (CI)=2.171–146.86]. Postmenopausal women were three times more at risk of developing osteoporosis than premenopausal women (OR=2.86, CI=1.18–6.89). Women using loop and those exposed to sunray regularly were less likely to develop osteoporosis than those not using loop and those not exposed to sun (OR=0.31, CI=0.12–0.78 and OR=0.24 and CI=0.076–0.762, respectively). Women eating cheese were less likely to develop osteoporosis than those not eating cheese (OR=0.41, CI=0.166–0.966). Multiple binary logistic regression detected that women with normal BMI, postmenopausal women, women not using loop, and women not eating cheese were more at risk of developing osteoporosis. Conclusion The current study revealed that women with normal BMI (nonobese), postmenopausal, not using loop, and not eating cheese were more at risk of developing osteoporosis. It also supports the assumption that obesity has a protective role in the development of osteoporosis in studied women population.
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Knowledge, attitude and practice towards family planning among married women in areas of low and no family planning in Giza governorate: Impact of educational intervention p. 98
Hend S Mohamed
DOI:10.4103/jasmr.jasmr_20_20  
Background/aim Little or incorrect knowledge about family planning (FP) is one of the main barriers to its use. The study aimed to identify areas of low or no FP utilization; assess married women characteristics, knowledge, attitude, and practice toward FP; and determine the effect of FP education. Patients and methods This intervention study included 198 married women in the reproductive age. Areas of low and no FP utilization were identified by hot map software. All women in the pre-identified areas were selected. A structured questionnaire was used to assess their characteristics, knowledge attitude, and practice toward FP. FP health education sessions were done to discuss importance of FP, appropriate use of different methods, their effectiveness, and side effects. Participants’ concerns and misconceptions were also addressed. After intervention, the participants’ knowledge was assessed. Service utilization, FP demand, and contraception prevalence indicators were calculated. Results Areas of low and no FP utilization were identified on the map. Mean age of women was 23.1±6.44 years. Most (82.83%) were school educated, and 61.11% were not working. The mean scores for knowledge and attitude were 12±7.89 and 93.41±8.17, respectively. The contraception prevalence was 31.8%. Intrauterine device was the most common method among 54%, followed by pills in 23%, and 6, 8, and 5% were relying on injections, condoms, and natural methods, respectively. After health education, the mean knowledge score was significantly increased, reaching 23±8.35, and contraceptive prevalence was 43.1%. Conclusion Knowledge and attitude of the study participants toward FP was almost low. There is a need for health education and counseling sessions to enhance the utilization of FP methods.
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