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   2014| July-December  | Volume 9 | Issue 2  
    Online since November 28, 2014

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In-vitro antibacterial and antioxidant properties of starch/chitosan edible composite film incorporated with thyme essential oil
Hamdy A Shaaban, Khaled F Mahmoud
July-December 2014, 9(2):54-61
Background/aim Nowadays, packaging research is receiving considerable attention because of the development of ecofriendly materials made from natural polymers such as starch and chitosan. This study aimed to prepare composite films from starch-chitosan, incorporated with Thymus vulgaris essential oil (S-CH-Th), and to evaluate their antibacterial, antioxidant and optical properties. Materials and methods The molecular weight of chitosan was (~400 kDa, 75-85% deacetylated). 27% amylose corn starch, Tween 80, DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and Folin-Ciocalteu reagent were used to carry out research. Antibacterial activity testing was performed using the disk method. Antioxidant activity test was performed using a spectrophotometric method with DPPH as the radical source. Essential oil concentrations ranging from 0 to 2%, incorporated into a starch-chitosan composite (S-CH) film, were used. Results Antibacterial and antioxidant properties increased significantly with the incorporation of Essential oils (EO) (P < 0.05). On incorporating EO, there was an increase in the total colour differences (ΔE ), yellowness index and whiteness index, which were significantly higher than those of the control, and the transparency was reduced. Also, the results showed that chitosan edible films incorporated with T. vulgaris EO could be used as active films because of their excellent antibacterial and antioxidant activities. Conclusion S-CH edible films incorporated with thyme EO as a natural antibacterial and antioxidant agent may potentially be used as an active packaging to enhance the safety of foods and food products.
  2,909 310 -
Antidepressant-like effect of resveratrol in a subchronic model of depression
Rania F Ahmed, Rehab F Abdel-Rahman, Heba Abdallah, Dalia O Saleh, Omar A. H. A Farid, Alyaa F Hessin
July-December 2014, 9(2):48-53
Background and aim Depression is one of the most serious and common mental diseases with major negative social consequences. Transresveratrol (trans-3,5,4΄-trihydroxystilbene) is a polyphenolic compound with a broad spectrum of pharmacological activities. It has been detected in some fruits and herbs, including the Asian plant Polygonum cuspidatum. The aim of this study was to assess the antidepressant-like effect of transresveratrol in a reserpine subchronic model of depression. Materials and methods Depression-like behaviours were induced in rats by reserpine injection (0.25 mg/kg, subcutaneously) every 48 h, for 20 days. Transresveratrol (60 and 120 mg/kg) and fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) were administered orally daily during the 20 days of the study. Behavioural tests, namely, open-field test and forced swimming test, as well as brain neurotransmitters levels and antioxidant contents and liver functions, were assessed. Results Data revealed that transresveratrol improved the rats' behaviour in both the open-field test and forced swimming test, and also elevated the brain's neurotransmitter content, normalized the liver enzymes level, and improved the antioxidant status of both the brain and liver, compared with those of fluoxetine. Conclusion The present study provided a clear evidence for the antidepressant-like of transresveratrol in the experimental model of depression. Further investigations are required to investigate the mechanism of action of transresveratrol as well as its applicability to be used as an antidepressant.
  2,817 259 -
Protective effect of fish liver oil and propolis on anticonvulsant drugs-induced osteoporosis
Fatma A Morsy, Amina A Gamal El Din, Abdel Razik H Farrag, Nermeen M Shaffie, Manal A Badawi, Walid M Sharaf
July-December 2014, 9(2):81-89
Background/aim Osteoporosis is a major health problem and its prevalence increases the risk of bone fracture. It is classified into primary (postmenopausal or age related) and secondary (related to chronic diseases, drug therapy, or life style). There is accumulating evidence that patients on antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are at an increasing risk of developing osteoporosis. The present study aimed at investigating the protective effect of dietary natural products, fish liver oil, and propolis on osteoporosis caused by anticonvulsant drugs. Materials and methods A total of 105 albino rats were used, divided into seven groups of 15 rats each. Group 1 was used as a control group. In group 2, rats were injected intraperitoneally with pilocarpine (300 mg/kg body weight). The pilocarpine-induced epileptic rats in the other five groups were orally treated with valproate (400 mg/kg body weight), a combination of valproate and fish liver oil (0.4 ml/kg body weight/day), a combination of valproate and propolis (50 mg/kg body weight/day), fish liver oil, and propolis, respectively. At the end of the experiment (6 months treatment), animals were sacrificed, femur shafts were extracted, decalcified, and processed into paraffin blocks for histopathological and image analysis and morphometric studies. Results Rats treated with the antiepileptic valproate alone showed a decrease in the thickness of shaft cortical bone, with a marked decrease in the number of osteocytes, increase in Haversian canals, and decrease in bone trabeculae, disruption of normal architecture, and widening of bone marrow spaces compared with the control group. Conclusion Treatment with the dietary natural products, fish liver oil, and propolis along with the AED valproate might improve histopathological changes and morphometric parameters in bone associated with AED-induced osteoporosis.
  2,393 173 -
Predictors of reduced serum vitamin D levels among Egyptian children with interstitial lung disease
Hala G Elnady, Inas R EL-Alameey, Terez B Kamel, Reem El feky, Eman R Youness, Shams Kholoussi
July-December 2014, 9(2):67-74
Background/aim Patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) appear to be at an increased risk of vitamin D deficiency for reasons that are not clear. This study was designed to determine the serum vitamin D level and to evaluate the relationship between the serum level of vitamin D and the underlying etiology, the clinical severity, and pulmonary functions among children with ILD. Patients and methods This cross-sectional case-control study was conducted on 40 patients aged 4-16 years with ILD from those regularly attending the Pediatric Chest Clinic and Pediatric Allergy and Immunology Clinic, Children's Hospital, Ain Shams University. They were divided into two subgroups: 20 patients with nonconnective tissue disease-associated ILD constituted group I and 20 patients with connective tissue disease-associated ILD constituted group II. Twenty apparently healthy children of matched age and sex were recruited as the control group. Results The mean serum vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D) level was significantly lower among patients with ILDs compared with controls (21.15 ± 4.6 vs. 48 ± 40.76 ng/ml, respectively, P < 0.05), and there was no significant difference between patients' subgroups. The mean alkaline phosphatase level was significantly higher in patients with ILDs compared with controls (P < 0.05). Our patients had a highly significant increase in the total leukocytic count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein in connective tissue disease-associated ILD as compared with nonconnective tissue disease-associated ILD. Serum vitamin D levels showed a significant positive correlation with forced vital capacity and significant negative correlations with the age and the duration of steroid therapy. By linear regression analysis, patients' age and the duration of steroid therapy were significant predictors of low serum vitamin D levels (at P = 0.045 and 0.01, respectively). Conclusion Children with ILD appear to be at an increased risk of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency, particularly those with reduced lung function. All patients with ILD receiving long-term corticosteroid therapy should be considered at increased risk for bone fracture. Preventive measures and routine estimation of vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D) should be recommended and vitamin D supplementation is advised on an individual basis.
  1,835 129 -
The relevance of Ki-67 and COX-2 immunoexpression in right-sided versus left-sided sporadic cancer colon in Egyptian patients
Walid M Sharaf, Reham S.E Esmail, Abdel Razik H Farrag, Enayat A Omara, Noha A Helmy, Nermeen M Shaffie
July-December 2014, 9(2):75-80
Background and aim Cancer colon is one of the most common malignancies in Egypt. There are growing amount of data suggesting that carcinomas of the right and left colon should be considered as different tumor entities. Difference in tumor proliferation rates has been used as a prognostic tool. Ki-67 is a proliferation-associated nuclear and nucleolar protein antigen, which is expressed in all cycling cells, and it is an important marker to determine the degree of tumor malignance and invasion ability. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an important key enzyme required for the synthesis of prostaglandins, with high level seen in many cancers including colon cancer. Patients and methods A total of 167 colectomy specimens were reviewed during the period of 1 year. Fifty cases from the originally viewed 167 cases were chosen; 25 cases from the right-side colon and 25 from the left-side colon of comparable stages and grades. Each case was stained immunohistochemically for Ki-67 and COX-2 antibodies. Results The results of Ki-67 immunostaining showed that the difference between the right and left cases was significant (P < 0.05) in addition to the results of COX-2 immunostaining. We suggest that right and left cancer colon may be two different entities with possible different risk factors and different pathogenesis, and hence each may require different treatment polices as well. Conclusion COX-2 expression in right-side tumors more than in left-side tumors may provide a chance for right-side cancers to benefit from COX-2 inhibitor therapy.
  1,764 138 -
Soluble Fas as a programmed cell death marker before and after antioxidant vitamins supplement in type 1 diabetes and high-risk children
Hala D El Gindi, Amal Hassanin, Manal A Shehata, Sara F Sallam, Ghada M El-Kassas, Rania N Sabry, Maha El Wassief
July-December 2014, 9(2):62-66
Background/Aim Considerable evidence indicates that increased oxidative stress and induction of apoptosis signaled through the Fas pathway appear to play an important role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diabetes. The present study aimed to detect the soluble Fas (sFas) as apoptotic marker and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in type 1 diabetes (T1D) and high-risk group children and whether it is altered by antioxidant vitamin supplement. Patients and methods Forty-five participants were included in the study and divided into three groups: group 1 comprised 15 children with new onset diabetes; group 2 included 15 diabetic children with long-standing diabetes; and group 3 comprised 15 individuals of patient's relatives. Serum levels of sFas and TAC were measured and compared between groups before and after antioxidant vitamin supplementation. Results The highest level of sFas was found in group 2 (2196.7 ± 579 pg/ml), however, with no statistical significance; after vitamins supplementation, its level showed significant decrease to reach 1156.6 ± 460.8 pg/ml (P = 0.01). Similar tendency of serum Fas decrease was observed in the group of relatives after vitamins supplementation (2088.3 ± 396.5 vs. 1426.7 ± 140.9, P < 0.01). TAC was significantly lower in group 2 than in the other two groups, and it showed a significant increase after vitamin intake (0.29 ± 0.06 vs. 0.40 ± 0.05 μmol/l, P < 0.05). Conclusion One month of treatment with antioxidants vitamins supplement increased the antioxidant activity in long-standing T1D children and resulted in significant reduction in sFas level, suggesting the importance of this therapeutics in reducing apoptosis changes in children with T1D.
  1,581 126 -