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   2017| January-June  | Volume 12 | Issue 1  
    Online since June 22, 2017

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Laboratory-acquired blood-borne parasites from accidental exposure
Elmeya H Safar
January-June 2017, 12(1):1-5
Background Infection caused by blood protozoa is becoming very common, especially in developed countries because of immunosuppressed persons and travelers. Therefore, this review aimed to illustrate the dangers of blood protozoa exposure among persons working in medical laboratories, especially when dealing with samples containing blood protozoa such as Babesia, Leishmania, Plasmodium, and Trypanosoma spp. Conclusion As protozoa multiply rapidly in humans even with a small inoculum, they can cause illness, in contrast to helminths. Diagnoses of infection can be confirmed through dermal scraping, examination of the stained slides by light microscopy, obtaining biopsy specimens for thin, stained smear, and needle aspiration for cultures of Leishmania spp. In addition, protocols should be provided for handling specimens that could carry viable organisms, using protective laboratory equipment.
  4,099 299 -
Modulatory role of Saccharomyces cerevisiae against cadmium-induced genotoxicity in mice
Omaima M Abd-El-Moneim, Heba A.M Abd El-Kader, Abeer H Abd El-Rahim, Hasnaa A Radwan, M Fadel, Ibrahim M Farag
January-June 2017, 12(1):27-38
Background/aim Cadmium (Cd) was found to be a major heavy metal utilized in different agricultural and industrial processes. However, exposure to this element was found to cause serious environmental pollution and induce deleterious effects on human and animal health. Therefore, this study was conducted to estimate the protective and therapeutic role of Saccharomyces cerevisiae against Cd genotoxicity. Materials and methods Forty-eight male mice were used in this study by dividing them into six groups (eight animals each): the control group, which was fed a basal diet; a group fed a basal diet contaminated with Cd (0.03 g/kg diet) for 3 weeks; two protection groups fed a basal diet supplemented with S. cerevisiae at low (5%) or high (7.5%) levels along with contamination with Cd; and two therapeutic groups fed a basal diet supplemented with S. cerevisiae at the same levels for 15 days after cessation of contamination with Cd. At the end of the experimental period, genetic and sperm parameters of the mice were evaluated. Genetic parameters included the DNA comet assay, random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR analysis, micronucleus test, and chromosomal examinations. Sperm parameters involved sperm-shape abnormalities and sperm count. Results The results showed that feeding on a basal diet contaminated with Cd caused significant increases in abnormal genetic parameters and sperm-shape abnormalities as well as significant decrease in sperm count. The utilization of S. cerevisiae yeast as a protective or therapeutic agent significantly improved the genetic and sperm parameters as compared with Cd treatment alone. The best findings were revealed when S. cerevisiae was used as a protective agent, especially treatment at high levels (7.5%). Conclusion This work showed that S. cerevisiae yeast is a strong probiotic agent against Cd detoxification in foods, where the addition of this probiotic to animal diets significantly minimized the deleterious effects caused by Cd on the genetic and sperm parameters of mice.
  2,065 215 -
Antioxidant activity and α-amylase inhibitory effect of selected medicinal plants grown in jordan: an in-vitro study
Shereen Al-Kharabsheh, Maher Al-Dabbas, Hadeel Ghazzawi, Ahmad Zatimeh, Khaled Abulaila
January-June 2017, 12(1):19-26
Background/aim Olive tree (Olea europaea), Artemisia herba-alba, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Teucrium polium are among the medicinal plants grown in Jordan and used in folk medicine to reduce the complication of diabetes. This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity and inhibitory activity of phenolics and porcine pancreas α-amylase, in vitro, of these medicinal plants. Materials and methods The plant materials of A. herba-alba, O. europaea, R. officinalis, and T. polium were purchased from the local market in Amman. The aqueous extracts of aerial parts were investigated for the total phenolics and flavonoidal contents spectrophotometrically. Antioxidant activity was determined by two methods: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and reducing power activity using ferricyanide assays. α-Amylase inhibitory activity was determined using 2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl-α-d-maltotrioside (CNP-G3) assay in vitro. Results Aqueous extract of R. officinalis was the highest in phenolic and flavonoidal contents (107.6 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g and 482 mg quercetin equivalent/100 g, respectively) among other three extracts, and it has the highest reducing power and DPPH inhibition activities at concentration of 25 ppm (30.9 and 57.3%, respectively). Moreover, it showed a remarkable α-amylase inhibitory activity (70% at a concentration of 20 μg/ml). T. polium aqueous extract showed to contain the least amounts of phenolics and flavonoidal compounds of 43.4 mg gallic acid equivalent /100 g and 206.0 mg quercetin equivalent/100 g, respectively; the lowest reducing power and DPPH inhibition activities of 14.8 and 38.3%, respectively, at concentration of 25 ppm; and weak α-amylase inhibitory activity (5% at a concentration of 20 μg/ml). However, all extracts including O. europaea and A. herba-alba showed a potential antioxidant activity better than the standard BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene) on DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazy) radical scavenging assay. Phenolic compounds from the studied plants showed strong and significant correlation with both reducing power activity (r=0.92, P<0.01) and α-amylase inhibitory activity (r=0.98, P<0.01) at 180 s. Conclusion Aqueous extract of R. officinalis, olive tree leaves (O. europaea), and A. herba-alba may be suggested as potential sources of natural antioxidants and α-amylase inhibitory activity owing to their high phenolic and flavonoidal contents.
  2,057 216 -
Immunohistochemical expression of HER-2/neu receptors in gastric carcinoma
Elia A Ishaky, Sonia L El-Sharkawy, Menar M Ayob, Hafiza A Sharaf, Rofanda M Bakeer
January-June 2017, 12(1):13-18
Background/aim Gastric carcinoma is the fourth most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second most common cause of cancer-related death. It is associated with patient morbidity and mortality worldwide. Adenocarcinomas represent 90% of gastric carcinoma cases and are classified into intestinal and diffuse types. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2)/neu overexpression is a predictor of poor prognosis. This study aimed to evaluate HER-2/neu expression in gastric carcinomas and to correlate its expression with clinicopathological parameters and other prognostic factors. Patients and methods Forty-five cases of primary gastric carcinoma were included in this study. Thirty-two cases were of intestinal type and 13 cases were of the diffuse type. All specimens were formalin fixed, routinely processed, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and immunohistochemically stained with HER-2/neu. Results Overexpression of HER-2/neu was detected in five out of 30 (11.1%) gastric carcinomas. There was a nonsignificant difference (P>0.05) in different histologic types. Also HER-2/neu expression showed a nonsignificant correlation with both histologic grade and tumor stage. Conclusion Our results revealed a limited effect of HER-2/neu on the biologic behavior of gastric carcinoma. However, further study with a larger sample size is recommended to clarify the therapeutic role of trastuzumab (Herceptin) in gastric carcinoma patients expressing HER-2/neu.
  1,953 219 -
Histopathological and immunohistochemical study of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 in breast carcinoma
Naglaa F Abbas, Marwa El-Araby Shabana, Fahima M Habib, Ahmed A Soliman
January-June 2017, 12(1):6-12
Background/aim Breast cancer is the most harmful tumor among women around the world, with increasing incidence rates. Invasion and metastasis are the most insidious and life-threatening parts of the cancer. Efforts have been made to understand the mechanisms that regulate and facilitate the metastatic process. This step in metastasis of malignant cells requires the association of proteolytic catalysts that degrade protein segment of the extracellular matrix. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) are the members of degrading enzymes required in tumor advancement, invasion, and metastasis. This work aims to examine the utility of MMPs in breast carcinoma to assess their usefulness in growth, invasion, and metastasis. Patients and methods A total of 60 samples of cases of breast cancer with positive and negative lymph nodes were collected randomly as paraffin blocks which was previously prepared material. The samples from the cases were immunostained for MMP-2 and MMP-9, and their expression was correlated with various clinicopathological parameters. Results Most cases of cancer were presented in the age group 51–60 years. The most common type was invasive duct carcinoma Not Otherwise Specified (NOS), representing 70% of cases. Overall, 51 (85%) cases were positive for MMP-2 whereas 54 (90%) cases were positive for MMP-9. Presence of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in peritumoral stroma was in the ratio of 60 and 64%, respectively. Both markers were significantly elevated in malignant tissues of patient with lymph node metastasis as compared with those without lymph node metastasis (P=0.029 and 0.048, respectively). The expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 increased with advanced clinical staging and grading (P=0.015 and 0.011). Conclusion Expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in breast cancer is closely correlated with positive lymph node, high histological grade, and advanced clinical stage. More studies with a huge sample size are needed to assess the prognostic role of MMPs in breast cancer. The use of MMP inhibitors as an adjuvant treatment for breast carcinoma is recommended.
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