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   2019| January-June  | Volume 14 | Issue 1  
    Online since June 27, 2019

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Role of citicoline as a protective agent on toluene-induced toxicity in rats
Nermeen Shaffie, Marwa E Shabana
January-June 2019, 14(1):14-24
Background/aim Toluene is used as an organic solvent; it has toxic effects on liver, renal, and neurological tissues. Citicoline has antioxidant effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of citicoline against toluene-induced toxicity in rats. Material and methods A total of 24 rats were divided in four equal groups with six rats each. Rats in group 1 were the control. Rats in group 2 were exposed to toluene intraperitoneally at 900 mg/kg. Rats in group 3 were exposed to toluene 900 mg/kg in combination with citicoline at 150 mg/kg orally. The rats in group 4 were exposed to toluene 900 mg/kg in combination with citicoline 300 mg/kg orally. All treatments were used daily for 6 days. All rats were killed by decapitation. Tissue sections were stained with routine histological methods and examined under light microscope. In addition, sections were immunohistochemically staining with caspase-3 for liver and renal tissues and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) for brain tissue, and area percentage of positivity was measure by image analysis system. Results Histopathological and immunomorphometric studies of GFAP in brain and caspase-3 in liver and kidney were done. Toluene-treated groups showed vacuolar degeneration of hepatocytes and epithelial lining of renal tubules, neuronal damage, and neurodegeneration. There was an increase in caspase-3 in liver and kidney, which show marked increase in control positive rats that treated with toluene alone, but when large dose of citicoline 300 mg was added to toluene, the area percentage of caspase-3 was markedly decreased in liver and kidney. In addition, GFAP expression in brain tissue was decreased in toluene-treated control positive group, which then increased when treated with citicoline especially with a large dose. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that citicoline treatment can protect against toluene-induced toxicity in rats.
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Histopathological and histochemical effects of nicotine on the liver and kidney of adult male rats
Medhat M Menshawy, Walid M Sharaf, Reham S.E. Esmail, Abdel R.H. Farrag
January-June 2019, 14(1):7-13
Background/aim Nicotine is the more abundant alkaloid component contained in tobacco. Smoking causes numerous diseases that are associated with anemia. Nicotine is metabolized primarily by the liver, and to a lesser extent, by the kidney. The aim of this study was to investigate the iron distribution and histopathological changes in liver and kidney tissues of rats administered with nicotine. Materials and methods This study was performed on thirty adult male albino rats. Animals were divided into three groups (10 each). Group I served as control rats, which were injected subcutaneously with 1 ml of normal saline; group II rats were injected subcutaneously with nicotine at a dose of 0.25 mg/kg/day; and group III rats were injected subcutaneously with nicotine at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks. At the end of the experiment, the animals were killed under ether anesthesia. Liver and kidney tissues specimens were prepared by routine histological procedures and examined under a light microscope. Results Injection with nicotine showed iron deposition inside the liver sinusoids, seen as green bluish stain. In addition, scattered iron intracellular deposition appeared as scattered bluish dots in kidney. Histopathological examination of liver specimens from rats injected subcutaneously with nicotine showed mononuclear cell infiltration and that some of the hepatocytes had a hyperchromatic nucleus and enlarged sinusoids as compared with the control ones. However, kidney specimens showed some vacuolated tubular cells, few dilated tubules, and the presence of intraluminal casts in some tubules. Conclusion This study indicated that subcutaneous injection of nicotine causes iron deposition in the liver and kidney and is associated with structural damage.
  2,328 297 1
Cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity of naturally and chemically synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles
Amr A El-Waseif
January-June 2019, 14(1):42-51
Background/aim Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a polar inorganic compound with numerous applications, for example, as an antimicrobial agent. The present study aims to synthesize ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) by two different methods, and then determine the antimicrobial activity of ZnO NPs from both methods. It then focuses on comparison between the cytotoxicity of both ZnO NPs. Materials and methods ZnO NPs were synthesized using natural and chemical methods. The synthesized and prepared ZnO NPs were detected by precipitation in both methods using de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe broth and alkaline medium, respectively. The characterization of ZnO NPs was performed using ultraviolet spectroscopy, zeta potential, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to decide properties of NPs. Viability tests are essential for assessing the effect of toxicants on cells. To measure cell viability following NP exposure, MTT assay was used. Results Results of ultraviolet and TEM experiments for both NPs indicated absorbance at 356–360 nm, which is typical for ZnO NPs. Results show that naturally prepared ZnO NPs had an average size within 7.8 nm; they were small spherical particles with a narrow size distribution relatively with smooth surfaces. The chemically prepared ZnO NPs’ TEM images showed an average size of 27.6 nm. Zeta value of naturally synthesized ZnO NPs was estimated to be −25.30 mV at pH=7. However, the value of zeta potential in chemical preparation strategy showed −18.6 mV. Results revealed that toxicity of naturally synthesized ZnO NPs was less than that of chemically prepared ZnO NPs. Furthermore, the decline in cytotoxicity attributed to ZnO NP exposure was dependent on the concentration of ZnO NPs. The antimicrobial activity results of ZnO NPs showed that the ZnO NPs produced from both methods recorded antimicrobial activities against the pathogenic strain models used. Conclusion The microbial synthesized ZnO NPs within size 7.8 nm when used at concentration 625 μg/ml as antimicrobial agent recorded the lowest cytotoxicity when compared with chemically synthesized. So that natural synthesis of ZnO was recommended.
  2,202 283 2
Electroretinogram as an early detection of chloroquine retinal toxicity in pigmented rabbits
Amal Elawady Ibrahim, EmanSaad Elabrak, Mervat Ahmed Ali
January-June 2019, 14(1):1-6
Objective Chloroquine (CQ) is a useful drug. It has less systemic hazards than many of the other medications used for immune diseases, but may cause retinopathy. The ophthalmologists do not discover the retinopathy till the appearance of bull’s eye. The aim of the work is to try to use electroretinogram (ERG) and its b/a ratio in early detection of CQ retinopathy for pigmented rabbits chronically treated with CQ. Materials and methods Twenty adult pigmented rabbits (1.5–2 kg) were classified into four groups (five each): the first group served as control and the other three groups of rabbits were intramuscularly injected with CQ diphosphate (14 mg/kg body weight) three times/week for 50, 70, and 90 days, respectively. Each group is subjected to ERG recording, and then decapitation of animal and measurement of oxidant, antioxidant parameters, and histopathological examination in the retinal tissue were done. Results All results show no change by the 50th day after CQ administration. All the changes appear by the 70th day. The data indicated there is a deformation in ERG waves and significant decrease (P<0.05) in b/a ratio. Significant increase (P<0.05) in malondialdehyde level, and in the same context, significant decreases (P<0.05) in superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase activity were seen. The histopathological changes are in the form of vacuolation in the pigment epithelium, destruction in the outer segments of the photoreceptor layer, and signs of karyolysis in some nuclei of outer nuclear layer. Conclusion Our data showed the possibility of using b/a ratio as an early indicator to CQ retinal toxicity in pigmented rabbits. It is also suggested that CQ increases the oxidative stress levels, so supplementation by antioxidants should be a part of the treatment regime.
  2,073 257 -
Protective effect of Hypericum perforatum on dexamethasone-induced diabetic depression in rats
Mohamed E Elhadidy, Abeer A.A. Salama, Mahitab El-Kassaby, Enayat A Omara
January-June 2019, 14(1):25-32
Background/aim Complex interactions among psychological, social, and biological factors are the reason for diabetic depression. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of Hypericum perforatum extract on dexamethasone-induced diabetic depression. Materials and methods A total of 24 adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups (six rats each): group 1: control; group 2: daily treated with dexamethasone (0.44 mg/kg; intraperitoneally for 28 days); and groups 3 and 4: daily treated with H. perforatum extract (100 and 200 mg/kg; orally) concurrent with dexamethasone injection for 15 consecutive days. Plasma levels of blood glucose, glucose transporter-2, CD4, total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde, and nitric oxide were measured. In addition, the brain contents of serotonin, dopamine, cyclooxygenase-2, and transforming growth factor-β1 were determined. Moreover, assessment of histopathological changes of brain tissues and immunohistochemical analysis of caspase-9 were performed. Results Significant elevations were recorded in blood glucose level and plasma levels of malondialdehyde and nitric oxide. In addition, brain contents of dopamine, transforming growth factor-β1, and cyclooxygenase-2 were increased significantly in dexamethasone-treated group. However, plasma levels of glucose transporter-2, CD4, and total antioxidant capacity and the brain content of serotonin were significantly decreased in comparison with control group. Both doses of H. perforatum significantly ameliorated all biochemical parameters and alleviated histopathological and immunohistochemical apoptotic changes induced by dexamethasone in the rat cortex, striatum, and hippocampus. Conclusion H. perforatum extract possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects against dexamethasone-induced diabetic depression.
  2,071 238 3
Diagnostic accuracy of the mean platelet volume in oral lichen planus
Mai Zakaria, Ola Khashaba
January-June 2019, 14(1):52-56
Background/aim Oral lichen planus (OLP) is an inflammatory disorder influencing oral mucosa characterized by chronicity. Mean platelet volume (MPV) has been shown as an inflammatory indicator. The present research study attempted to assess the diagnostic accuracy of MPV in patients with OLP. Patients and methods A total of 70 patients suspected to have symptomatic OLP were included from the Oral Medicine and Periodontology Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Cairo University. From all patients, blood samples were taken for complete blood count to measure MPV, and biopsies were taken for histopathological evaluation as a gold standard. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy tests were done. A receiver operating characteristics curve was made. Results Histopathological evaluation revealed 66 of the patients with positive OLP and four patients with negative OLP results. The mean level of MPV in all the patients was 10.29±0.8 fl in comparison with the reference range of 7.4–10.4 fl. The sensitivity and specificity of MPV level are 80.3% and 50%, respectively. Conclusion The MPV level may be a feasible and cost-effective indicator in the diagnosis of OLP.
  1,957 161 -
Green tea extract suppresses osteoclastogenesis and opposes glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis in rats
Dalia A Saad, Abd El-Hamid A Mohamed, Shimaa A El-Gohary
January-June 2019, 14(1):33-41
Background/aim Glucocorticoids-induced osteoporosis (GIO) through suppression of osteoblast activity, induction of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), and downregulation of osteoprotegerin (OPG). Green tea has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study aims to evaluate the effects of green tea extract (GTE) supplementation on bone proteins, mineralization, and markers in GIO. Materials and methods The study was performed on 30 adult male Wistar rats, which were divided into three groups: control (C, n=10); GIO (n=10), which received dexamethasone 7 mg/kg body weight intramuscular once/week for 4 weeks; and GTE-supplemented osteoporotic (GT-GIO, n=10), which received dexamethasone, followed by 300 mg/kg per day of GTE by gavage for 4 weeks, with continuation of the dexamethasone. Serum calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase activity, parathyroid hormone, deoxypyridinoline, osteocalcin, OPG, and RANKL were determined. Samples of left tibia were used for histopathological examination of bone. Results A significant decrease in serum Ca++, PO4, osteocalcin, and OPG, accompanied by a significant increase in serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, deoxypyridinoline, and RANKL was detected in the GIO group compared with the control group. GT-GIO group showed a significant increase in serum Ca++, PO4, osteocalcin, and OPG, with a significant decrease in serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, deoxypyridinoline, and RANKL compared with the GIO group. Bone examination of GIO rats revealed thinning, loss of architecture, erosions, and increased osteoclasts. Bone sections of the GT-GIO group revealed significant improvement, regain of normal architecture, and decreased osteoclast number. Conclusion GTE had an antiosteoporotic effect in GIO, and its effects are much more than its antioxidant characteristics.
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